Unit 6 Developmental Psychology
May 28, 2021
Unit 6 developmental psychology
- Developmental Psychology By Mr. Johny Kutty Joseph Assistant Professor Shri Mata Vaishno Devi College of Nursing
- Developmental Psychology The study of YOU from womb to tomb. We are going to study how we change physically, socially, cognitively and morally over our lifetimes.
- Nature Versus Nurture While going through this unit always been in the back of your head…. Are you who you are because of: • The way you were born- Nature. • The way you were raised- Nurture.
- Psychology of a Child during Infancy & Early Childhood (0-5 years) The special features of behavioral pattern at this age are; •Dependency on Others: depending on parents and family members for basic needs. Children expects to be loved and cared. They require the attention of parents. •Self assertion: Children tries to dominate elders though they are dependent. Children think that they are always right and all should obey him/her.
- Psychology of a Child during Infancy & Early Childhood (0-5 years) • Period of make believe and fantasy: they live in their world of creation. Increased fantasy and limited potentials are seen. • Selfish and Unsocial: Not sharing the toys with others. Do not want love of the parents to be divided. Also thinks that he/she should be only cared at home. • Emotionally unstable: violent emotional experiences can be expected. All the emotional expression are intense, frequent, and unstable. Not able to hide any feelings at this age.
- Psychology of a Child during Infancy & Early Childhood (0-5 years) • Mental development: developing curiosity and questioning attitude. Concrete thinking not developed. Time concept not developed. • Sexual Development: though the sexual organs are not developed the tendency starts developing. The infant pass through three stages such as self love, homosexual and heterosexual. Eg. Sucking the thumb, touching sexual organs, love for parents etc.
- Psychology of a Child during later childhood(6-12 years) The special features of behavioral pattern at this age are; •Craving for Independence: feels more at home with the world and takes satisfaction by doing his work with his own efforts. Tries to be independent from parents and he considers parents as the people to just provide food and shelter. •Emotional Stability and control: the child learns to hide his feelings. learns to express the emotions an appropriate and socially acceptable manner.
- Psychology of a Child during later childhood(6-12 years) • Developing social tendency: playing in group, mutual cooperation, team spirit, group loyalties etc. • Realistic attitude: accepting the realities of life. No more believe in the world of fantasy and fairy-tales. • Formation of sentiments and complexes: various sentiments like religious, moral, patriotic etc are developed in this age • Sexual development: more friendly with own sex group as in latency stage. Boys tend to show
- Psychology of a Child during later childhood(6-12 years) • Intellectual development: power of reasoning, thinking, observation, concentration, perception imagination are developed. • Development of interest and aptitude: likes and dislikes are formed. Such likes and dislikes for books, television shows. Boys show adventurous activities while girls shoe softness and feministic features.
- Psychology of Adolescents (13-19 years) • Perplexity with regards to somatic variation: the flow of blood during menstruation creates worries among girls and give birth to many fears and anxieties. It makes them introvert and secretive. For both bys and girls appearance and bodily conditions which is not keeping with the norms of normalcy will cause anxiety. Girls want to look feminine and be attracted to boys. Boys want to be manly in order to gain prestige. We can also observe the secondary sexual characteristics at this stage.
- Secondary Sexual Characteristics • Menarche for girls. • First ejaculation for boys. Widening of the Hips Deeper Voice Breast Development Body Hair
- Psychology of Adolescents (13-19 years) • Intensification of self awareness: there is an increased desire that their bodily changes should be noticed by elders. More attention is given towards dresses, make-up, manner of talking, walking, eating etc. want to become the centre of attraction for the opposite sex and violence also may be made for it. • Intensification of sex-consciousness: menstruation and ejaculation. Beginning of masturbation and homosexuality. • Independence Vs Dependence: self decision, maturity. Require more freedom, thrill and adventure. Widened social circle.
- Psychology of Adolescents (13-19 years) • Peer Group relationship: spend more time with peer. Increased loyalty towards own group. • Idealism Vs Realism: thought of reformation of world. Less religious, questioning the system.
- Psychology of Early Adult (20-40 years) • All physical abilities essentially peak by our mid twenties. • Jobs and Career. • Relationship and Marriage. • Separated from family, less emotional dependence on the parents. • Size of the family and education of children. • Role and status in the community and family. • More exploration, identification and establishing self, dreams, vision etc.
- Psychology of Middle Adult (40-60 years) • Slow decline in physical strength, energy, and enthusiasm. • Irritability, depression, insomnia, and weight gain. • Adjust with menopause. • Feel that clock is ticking faster and a worry whether I have done my work to satisfaction.
- Psychology of Late Adult (60 onwards) • Deterioration in physical health: DM, HTN, Heart diseases, etc. • Changes in perception: lack of vision, hearing, smell etc. • Changes in cognitive dimension: memory loss, dementia etc. • Changes in social dimension: more solitary, loss of spouse, etc • Changes in emotionality and temperament: more irritable, short tempered, fearful, anxiety, feeling of isolation.
- Erik Erikson • A neo-Freudian • Worked with Anna Freud • Thought our personality was influenced by our experiences with others. • Stages of Psychosocial Development. • Each stage centers on a social conflict.
- Trust v. Mistrust • Can a baby trust the world to fulfill its needs? • The trust or mistrust they develop can carry on with the child for the rest of their lives.
- Autonomy V. Shame & Doubt • Toddlers begin to control their bodies (toilet training). • Control Temper Tantrums • Big word is “NO” • Can they learn control or will they doubt themselves?
- Initiative V. Guilt • Word turns from “NO” to “WHY?” • Want to understand the world and ask questions. • Is there curiosity encouraged or scolded?